In mid 19th century the mug shot was invented and in 1888 the French policeman Alphonse Bertillon standardised the process (you can read here more about the method and its limits). This opened not just the era of the “criminal body” – identifying the criminal by physical features, but also one of linking a person’s identity to the morphological features of their body, and fixing it in official documents.
Here are a couple of such interesting anthropometry cards:
And, the best by far, a mug shot of Bertillon’s son:
More cards: here
PS: And a nice example from the beginnings of fingerprinting